The promise of 5G Fifth-generation wireless systems – commonly known as 5G – are a big leap forward for mobile communications.  The innovations connected to 5G could be worth around $13.2 trillion over the next 15 years for the industry and public sector.  By 2025, deploying the new technology could generate €213 billion in revenue…

In its judgment of 16 February 2021 in Hanan v Germany, [1] the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (‘the ECtHR’) confirmed that the European Convention on Human Rights (‘the ECHR’) applies extraterritorially to the conduct of armed forces deployed abroad by Contracting States. The case thus presents important findings on the question…

Are exploitative contracts part of innovation? 2020 has not only been a year of pandemic. The year has also provided additions to the growing tome of ‘gig economy’ litigation; case law that has largely (though not exclusively) centred around Uber. Employment status has been the focal point of this discussion. Attention should be drawn to…

Introduction The European Union (EU) and China signed a bilateral agreement for the reciprocal protection of Geographical Indications (GIs) against usurpation and imitation. The agreement strengths the EU-China trading relationship and reinforce the EU (sui generis) approach on GIs in the global market.  It took around eight years of negotiations, but in the end, it…

1. Introduction On 20 October 2020, the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority (“PTS”) decided to approve Hi3G Access AB, Net4Mobility HB, Telia Sverige AB and Teracom AB as participants in auction proceedings regarding the granting of licenses to use radio transmitters in the frequency bands 3,5 GHz and 2,3 GHz.  In laying down the requirements…

We wanted to draw your attention to some interesting articles about the topics of the Regulating for Globalization blog that appeared in the European Review of Private Law, Volume 28, Issue 3, 2020, edited by André Janssen and Matthias E. Storme.   Kahraman Altun, Ll.M. (Edinburgh), Anti-Suit Injunctions in European Transnational Litigation: Past, Present and…

The European Commission has finally disclosed its intention to challenge the Apple judgement delivered by the General Court on the 15th of July. Although it has been a difficult choice, considering the highly political implications of the matter, the Commission’s resolve is strategically sound as it offers the Court of Justice the possibility to correct the…

I. Introduction In Part 1 of this post, we examined the draft amendment to the Polish Act on the National Cybersecurity System [“Polish National Cybersecurity Act”] introduced by the Polish Minister for Digitization on 7 September 2020.[1] We explained that Draft Article 66a of the Polish Act sets out new regulations for the Polish telecommunications…

I. Introduction On 7 September 2020, the Polish Minister for Digitization presented a draft amendment to the Act on the National Cybersecurity System [“Polish National Cybersecurity Act”].[1] Apart from a series of amendments related to cybersecurity issues, the newly introduced Draft Article 66a sets out new regulations applicable in the Polish telecommunications market. The new…

Introduction Among its countless repercussions, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had disastrous consequences on the economy, affecting both supply chains and the demand curve in numerous markets. Market conditions changed abruptly due to anti-COVID restrictions and the health emergency caused the demand for numerous products and services to decline, whereas the request for others,…

A welcome initiative  Pressure has been increasing on businesses to contribute proactively to achieving climate and broader sustainability objectives. Companies consider that such initiatives often require cooperation with others, in order to get such projects successfully off the ground (for example, due to a minimum scale being required and/or due to a first mover disadvantage)….

Introduction: The Hardship Clause The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had (and is still having) a major impact on long term contracts, both at national and supranational level. In Italy, for instance, the emergency has ignited a lively debate on the most appropriate remedy to restore fairness in a contractual relationship where one of…

Jeremias Adams-Prassl, Antonio Aloisi, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano   In late April 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU handed down an order in response to a request for a preliminary ruling on working time protection from a UK employment tribunal. The case dealt with the distinction between genuine self-employed persons excluded from…

The devastating effects of COVID-19 on national healthcare systems and the economy worldwide have unveiled the shortcomings of efficiency driven policies and the drawbacks of globalization. But before one can stop, wonder, assess and decide how to improve the ability to react promptly to future pandemic threats and how to ensure adequate stocks of personal…

Nowadays, important decisions, previously left to humans, are delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, how personal data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. Business models driven by personal data or at least supported by processing of such data have become the rule and not the exception….

The worldwide and fast spread of the corona virus and the Covid-19 disease gave momentum to homework for workers having office jobs. While information and communications technology allows workers to be available for work 24/7 the – mostly – abrupt decision of employers to put their staff on teleworking from home creates legal and practical…

Liberty is an essential part of life. Globalization has provided us with the freedom to move from nation to nation with ease, travelling widely. COVID-19 has had an unquestionably dramatic effect on the liberty of the global population to do so. So far, approximately 2.5 billion people have now been put into a form of…

Introduction The definition of the territorial limits of the State of Israel is one of the main reasons behind the conflict in the Middle East, with consequences that often extend beyond the classic issues of international politics. As known, the last massive Israeli expansion occurred in 1967 with the Six-Day War and currently the Golan…

Whilst the EU-UK trade negotiations have barely commenced, one thing is already quite clear: the two sides are poles apart on the key issue of level playing field (LPF) provisions and the extent to which these should feature in a future EU-UK free trade agreement.  The aim of these provisions, as originally set out in…