The promise of 5G Fifth-generation wireless systems – commonly known as 5G – are a big leap forward for mobile communications.  The innovations connected to 5G could be worth around $13.2 trillion over the next 15 years for the industry and public sector.  By 2025, deploying the new technology could generate €213 billion in revenue…

Reclassification of ‘gig’ workers in California The State of California passed a law in force as of 1 January 2020 that classified ‘gig’ workers as employees of the platforms engaging their services ‘unless the hiring entity demonstrates that the person is free from the control and direction of the hiring entity in connection with the…

In two previous blog posts (one here on this blog and an earlier one on EU Law Analysis) I pre-emptively commented on the possible legal construction of professional qualification recognition post-Brexit. Now that the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement has been published, it is appropriate to describe and critically reflect upon the actual legal construction…

On December 11, 2019, the European Union proposed the European Green Deal, which included a statement that “should differences in levels of ambition worldwide persist, as the EU increases its climate ambition, the Commission will propose a carbon border adjustment mechanism, for selected sectors, to reduce the risk of carbon leakage.” This blog entry provides…

Introduction In an earlier post on this blog (here), I commenced my analysis of the recognition of professional qualifications of migrants at work in the EU by describing and reflecting upon those provisions of EU migration and asylum law governing such recognition. In this blog post, I complete my analysis of qualification recognition by describing…

On 22 June 2020, the European Social Partners released their Autonomous Framework Agreement on Digitalisation.The Social Partners signing this agreement were: BusinessEurope, SMEunited, CEEP, ETUC and the liaison committee EUROCADRES/CEC, The Agreement is welcome (particularly in the midst of a pandemic) as an acknowledgement of the continuing movement towards a predominantly digital means of working…

Introduction In two blog posts (here, here) I have commented on the recognition of professional qualifications between the EU and UK post-Brexit. Yet to be described and reflected upon, however, is the more general scheme of legal regulation of the recognition of professional qualifications which applies to third-country nationals coming to the EU, be they…

Are exploitative contracts part of innovation? 2020 has not only been a year of pandemic. The year has also provided additions to the growing tome of ‘gig economy’ litigation; case law that has largely (though not exclusively) centred around Uber. Employment status has been the focal point of this discussion. Attention should be drawn to…

Introduction Among its countless repercussions, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic had disastrous consequences on the economy, affecting both supply chains and the demand curve in numerous markets. Market conditions changed abruptly due to anti-COVID restrictions and the health emergency caused the demand for numerous products and services to decline, whereas the request for others,…

Introduction: The Hardship Clause The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had (and is still having) a major impact on long term contracts, both at national and supranational level. In Italy, for instance, the emergency has ignited a lively debate on the most appropriate remedy to restore fairness in a contractual relationship where one of…

Today, global competition obliges companies dealing in international trade to modernize their procedures of delivery to minimize the customs burden and simplify the relationship with customs authorities. Customs planning is as important as ever, to be effective in the worldwide marketplace. Especially after the Covid19 sanitary emergency, there is a strong need to upgrade the…

From an EU social and labour policy perspective, 2020 started off on the right foot. In mid-January, the Commission presented its Communication on “A Strong Social Europe for A Just Transition”. In the Communication, the Commission’s priorities (the European Green Deal and the digitalization agenda) appeared to be intertwined with the commitment to promote fairness…

It cannot be disputed that labour law has served and still serves as the institution that protects the dependent workforce. Yet labour law has also served the purpose to codify the authority of the employers over their employees while, in return, recognising them the entitlement to certain rights they can invoke against the employer itself….

Reflecting on digitalization (as a collective term for artificial intelligence, robotization and new technologies) of the workplace draws out the confused intermingling of outcomes and ambitions. The aims of technological innovations entrench an economic understanding of efficiency, often at the expense of social considerations, which pose significant potential to displace human workers. These aims, as…

Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Budapest, Hungary © David Mangan

Can an employee be an expert in her work, beyond her employment?  Employees engaged in knowledge or service industries have taken the initiative to also market themselves as leaders in their industries using online sources. Platforms such as LinkedIn may be used. Alternatively, a website that offers industry-specific information may be created by the employee. The…

This article was first published by Air Cargo. On occasion, life has a habit of appearing to imitate art. Both Beckett’s ‘Waiting for Godot’ and Kafka’s ‘The Castle’ are now widely being considered as contemporary literary representations of the UK’s tortured Brexit process. Both works are underpinned by the themes of frustration and absurdity, with the…

5G is the most advanced technology in mobile communications. In fall 2018, at the forefront in Europe, Italy arranged a successful multi-billion euro auction for 5G spectrum. On the side, the administration allowed a few operators to convert old WiMax licenses to 5G usage, for a few million euro. A legal battle arose. In November…

Agricultural Industry

The ‘digital agricultural revolution’ and ambitions for technology in the workplace Industry 4.0. This is the name used by the European Parliament in 2015 to describe the convergence of changes in a variety of areas, including ‘the design, manufacture, operation and service of manufacturing systems and products.’ The 4.0 in Industry 4.0 denotes the ‘fourth…